Kazaa Aluminum Core

In reference to the last posting, Julian mentioned that perhaps Kazaa and it’s supernodes have more of an aluminum core because the cloud that supports the Kazaa P2P network is still mallable — the Supernodes that provide the cloud services are fluid and can change as well as go offline with little or no impact to the system.

I imagine, without going into the architecture of the system, that more than one Supernode is assigned to any particular subnet, others to act as backups, most likely pinging the primary Supernode to see if it’s still in operation. Out of operation, the backup Supernode(s) takes over and a signal is sent to the P2P nodes to get services from this IP address rather than that one. The original Supernode machine may even detect a shutdown and send a signal to the secondaries to take over.

Or perhaps the Supernode IPs are chained and the software on each P2P node checks at this IP first and if no response occurs, automatically goes to the second within the Supernode list and continues on until an active Supernode is found. This would take very little time, and would, for the most part be transparent to the users.

Again without access to any of the code, and even any architecture documentation (which means there’s some guesswork here) the algorithm behind the Supernode selection list looks for nodes that have the bandwidth, persistent connectivity, and CPU to act as Supernodes with little impact to the computer’s original use. The member nodes of each KaZaA sub-net — call it a circle — would perform searches against the circle’s Supernode, which is, in turn, connected to a group of Supernodes from other circles so that if the information sought in the first circle can’t be found, it will most likely be found in the next Supernode and so on. This is highly scalable.

So far so good — little or no iron in the core because no one entity, including KaZaA or the owner’s behind KaZaA can control the existence and termination of the Supernodes. Even though KaZaA is yet another file sharing service rather than a services brokering system, the mechanics would seem to meet our definition of a P2P network. Right?


What happens when a new node wants to enter the KaZaA network? What happens if KaZaA — the corporate body — is forced offline, as it was January 31st because of legal issues? How long will the KaZaA P2P network survive?

In my estimation a P2P network with no entry point will cease to be a viable entity within 1-2 weeks unless the P2P node owners make a determined effort to keep the network running by designating something to be an entry point. Something with a known IP address. Connectivity to the P2P circle is the primary responsibility of a P2P cloud. KaZaA’s connectivity is based on a hard coded IP. However, small it is, this is still a kernel of iron.

We need a way for our machines to find not just one but many P2P circles of interest using approaches that have worked effectively for other software services in the past:

We need a way to have these P2P circles learn about each other whenever they accidentally bump up against each other — just as webloggers find each other when their weblogging circles bump up against each other because a member of two circles points out a weblog of interest from one circle to the other.

We need these circle to perform a indelible handshake and exchange of signatures that becomes part of the makeup of each circle touched so that one entire P2P circle can disappear, but still be recreated because it’s “genectic” makeup is stored in one, two, many other circles. All it would take to restart the original circle is two nodes expressing an interest.

We need a way to propogate the participation information or software or both to support the circles that can persist  regardless of whether the original source of said software or information is still operating, just as software viruses have been propogated for years. Ask yourselves this — has the fact that the originator of a virus gone offline impacted on the spread of said virus? We’ve been harmed by the technology for years, time to use the concepts for good.

We need a way to discover new services using intelligent searches that are communicated to our applications using a standard syntax and meta-language, through the means of a standard communication protocol, collected with intelligent agents, as Google and other search engines have been using for years. What needs to change is to have the agents find the first participating circle within the internet and ask for directions to points of interest from there.

Standard communication protocol, meta-language, syntax. Viral methods of software and information propogation. Circles of interest with their own DNA that can be communicated with other circles when they bump in the night, so to speak. Internet traversing agents that only have to be made slightly smarter — given the ability to ask for directions.

Web of discovery. Doesn’t the thought of all this excite you?

Full Peer

Dave’s looking for a definition for a full peer. I’ve never heard of the term “full peer”, and the qualification about being connected 24 hours doesn’t necessarily fit within a P2P (peer-to-peer) environment.

In P2P, a peer both provides and consumes services. A group of peers can then provide and consume services to and from each other without dependence on any one server. With this understanding, there’s an assumption that this consumption and distribution occurs when the peer is connected.

Within some P2P enabled applications, the communication may be cached or queued when the peer is not connected. I know this the way Groove works.

Within Freenet, any one of the nodes within the network can consume or supply files. But if a peer is not connected, it’s not part of the network, it isn’t a participant and files are consumed and supplied through other participants. Either you’re a peer, or you’re not. Again, the assumption of 24 hour access is not a factor.

Some systems support a hybrid cloud whereby service requests are cached at a remote location (usually hidden from the peer), waiting for the other peer to connect. When the other peer connects, the communication is concluded. The results of the service call can then be communicated back to the originating peer, or cached itself if the originating peer is offline.

In a true P2P system, any one of the peers within the network could act as a cloud (intermediary) for other peers. Within a hybrid system, such as Groove, the system itself might provide these types of intermediary services.

As for firewall issues, most P2P tools can work from within firewalls, or be made to work within firewalls.

Dave, an interesting definition – but I don’t necessarily see it within a truly distributed system. What’s your context for the term? That would help.

O’Reilly P2P Presentation Proposal

Title: Smoke: An Infrastructure supporting Distributed Peer Services

Length: 60 minutes

Focus of Talk: Technical/Tutorial

Subject Matter: Infrastructure/Distributed Computation


The sale of large scale control systems — such as those used with mass transit systems or to control multi-national pipelines — often requires a marketing and engineering effort that demands the input of several different people, many of whom live in different countries and speak different languages. To assist in this effort, a project is underway to create an automatic configuration tool that allows these team members to work in a collaborative manner, regardless of each member’s locale.

Because of a lack of infrastructure for applications of this nature, the developers designed one that is based entirely within P2P-based concepts and technologies.

This infrastructure, named Smoke, is unique in that it’s based on the concept of shared distributed peer services — services that are lightweight, discrete, and transient — existing within a framework that is both open-application and cross-platform compatible.

At the presentation, the speaker will provide an overview of Smoke, as well as demonstrate a working prototype of the automatic configuration tool. To display Smoke’s open-application and cross-platform support, three variations of the configuration tool prototype will be demonstrated: one with an interface created with Mozilla’s XUL and hosted on MacOS; one accessed through Enterprise Java Beans (EJB) hosted through an Apache WebServer and WebLogic on Unix; and one accessed through Groove, another P2P infrastructure product, hosted in Windows 2000.

Smoke is an open source infrastructure, which means it can be used by any developer interested in working within a P2P distributed peer services environment.


Shelley Powers will present an open source P2P infrastructure that supports the concept of distributed peer services: services that are lightweight, discrete, and transient. A prototype large scale control system configuration tool is used to demonstrate the infrastructure. Three different variations of the prototype will be shown, to demonstrate both the open-application and cross-platform capability of the infrastructure and the tool.

Speaker: Shelley Powers

Speaker Biography:

Shelley Powers is a consultant/author with her own company, the Burning Bird Corporation, currently located in Boston, Massachusetts.

In the last several years, Shelley has worked on several distributed and Web-based applications on a variety of platforms. In addition, she has also authored or co-authored books on Dynamic HTML, JavaScript, Java, CGI, Perl, P2P, and other technologies, as well as writing for several publications including Webtechniques, MSDN Journal, Netscapeworld, and O’Reilly Network. She’s the author of O’Reilly’s Developing ASP Components, second edition. Shelley can be reached at shelleyp@yasd.com.

Australian Censorship bill could impact on P2P

Originally published at O’Reilly

Australia’s been in the news before about Net censorship legislation, but the South Australian Parliament may have gone a little extreme even for this Net-conservative country.

A bill introduced in November would make it illegal for content providers to post material that is considered “objectionable viewing material” for children. What’s objectionable viewing material? Anything that the police — the police, mind you — would consider as falling within the R, NC, or X ratings categories of the film industry. Ostensibly this would cover material such as child pornography or content advocating breaking the law. However, the bill is general enough that it could also cover material on topics such as abortion, suicide, drug use, sexual behavior and other sensitive topics that could be termed “adult topics” and therefore R-rated.

Even more alarmingly, under this bill posting this material is illegal even if access to the material is restricted or password-protected. Compounding the problem, content providers would have no way of knowing whether their material would fall under one of the prohibited classifications before posting it; if the material is judged by the police to be within the parameters of this bill, you’d be charged. No warning and no second chance. And the fines aren’t cheap: as much as 10,000 (Australian) dollars per offense.

According to an alert issued by Electronic Frontiers Australia, this bill would actually make material that’s legal offline, illegal once posted online.

The impact of this bill on Web-based businesses is obvious — the level of censorship implied would give even the most conservative businesses pause when it comes to posting content on their Australian-based Web sites. What may not be so noticable, though, is the impact of this bill on peer-to-peer applications and services. You see, the wording of the bill doesn’t focus on Web-based content; it concerns content distributed via the Internet.

Consider the following scenario: You’re a subscriber to a file-sharing P2P service such as Napster. You make a request for material that could be considered “objectionable” because of the language used — for instance one of the more explicit songs from Alanis Morissette’s album “Jagged Little Pill,” or practically anything from Guns N’ Roses or Eminem. Once you’ve downloaded an “objectionable” song, it’s now on your machine for your personal use. However, in this process, you’ve also “posted” this content for access by other clients through the Internet: P2P is based on the fact that any node within the network can be both a client and server. According to this bill, you would be in violation of the law.

If you’re a subscriber to a decentralized service such as Freenet or Gnutella, the potential problems with this type of bill are even more extreme. With these types of P2P networks, if a file request is made from node A to node B, and then from node B to node C, that file is returned to node B as the intermediary first, and finally to node A. Now, not only is the peer located at C in violation of the law, so are A, who originally requested the file, and B, who did nothing more than subscribe to the conditions of the P2P service that states files may be stored on the client’s machine as a method of disseminating popular files throughout the network.

By its very nature, Freenet hides the identity of nodes supplying or requesting files, making it difficult to ascertain who was the originator of the material or the request. Because of this, it becomes difficult to ascertain who is legally responsible for “posting” the file if it is deemed to fall within the parameters of this censhorship bill. So, what could happen is that the intermediary node containing the file is the one charged with violating the law, rather than the originator, regardless of the technical and legal semantics that form the basis of anonymity within a Freenet network.

At the very least, applying this censorship law to the Freenet or Gnutella network would become a legal nightmare to the South Australian court system. All it would take to demonstrate the unfeasibility of the law is to introduce one highly popular but objectionable file to Freenet, potentially turning all or most South Australian Freenet users into criminals. This issue goes beyond considerations of copyright law.

According to the UK-based Register the South Australian’s politicians must have gone “barking mad” — in other words, the bill’s sponsors may want to reconsider the bill on its own merits.

Read the pertinent sections of the censorship bill at Electronic Frontiers and then join discussions at Slashdot and South Australia’s Talking Point

Browser, Browser Not

Originally published at O’Reilly

Recently, O’Reilly published a set of articles (Netscape Navigator 6.0 to Fail Standards ComplianceAn Update, and Netscape 6.0 Released), written by the popular author David Flanagan, about the release of Netscape 6.0, Netscape’s newest entry in the browser marketplace.

David presented several valid concerns about bugs still present in the release of Netscape 6.0. And it is true, Netscape 6.0 did release with several unfixed bugs, many of which will have an impact on support for W3C specifications.

Our reaction to the release, however, was somewhat different. Along with other application developers, we’ve been waiting for the public release of an application that uses Mozilla’s XPToolkit, a set of software components from which Netscape 6.0 and the upcoming Mozilla 1.0 were built. Now that Netscape 6.0, which uses this framework, has been publicly released, we’re delighted: testing of XPToolkit may begin in earnest.

While many are focused on the release of Netscape 6.0, some of us aren’t. We’re more interested in the application environment created by the Mozilla team to support the implementation of browsers in general. To us, this framework is more important than the release of a new browser will ever be.

The reason for this is the changing face of the Internet, itself.

The Changing Face of Internet Applications

Current Internet applications rely on a centrally located Web server to distribute HTML over HTTP to clients. Each client, or Web browser, renders the source and displays a human-readable page.

This architecture has become so popular that you can’t pick up a magazine or a newspaper without hearing about Web servers or the new business models based on them. Although this architecture is based around universally located resources, most application-level resources are centralized and many other resources are hard to find. Some Web sites help you find other Web sites or “resources.” Others go so far as to offer completely centralized applications, as Application Services Providers (ASPs).

New technologies will soon force us to rethink the way we use the Internet. Distributed systems, mobile agents, and peer-to-peer (P2P) applications may completely undermine the need for browser-based Internet access.

P2P applications are already stepping around the browser. The next step will be around the Web server.

Consider this: a P2P application that locates and downloads a new function. The simplest example here may be provided by a P2P execution framework that uses XML-based remote procedure calls between peers to marshal XML-encoded functions. Instead of hitting Web pages, each peer locates and accesses both data and functions among a network of peers. No Web servers.

This scenario is not going to be best served by the traditional browser. Why?

The Limitations of Browsers

The things that made the Web browser a success in the beginning are the things that make it ineffective for new application models.

The browser was built to render files stored on Internet sites so we didn’t have to muck about with FTP. As soon as content became more visible, people started publishing yet more content, so browsers rendered HTML, then XML, formatted with CSS or XSLT. However, the browser itself has a very limited interface, even with new advances in W3C specifications. Sophisticated browser pages mean using either complicated object models–leading to cross-platform and cross-browser idiosyncrasies that are usually the result of standards initiatives–or using page-embedded applications, such as Java applets and plug-ins.

Even when the browser follows standard specifications, working within a browser page to create a sophisticated interface isn’t a simple or uncomplicated task.

In addition to the browser becoming increasingly complex as the nature of content becomes so, use of it implies that applications ought to be served from one location, and in one manner. To do something such as make a remote procedure call, you would need to use a digitally signed Java applet or some other browser-specific and limited technique. This is something that won’t bother newer P2P applications.

Finally, browsers were designed to be safe, and operate in a protective sandbox. Web-based applications served via a browser have difficulty getting at the user’s machine. Though safe, this restriction also prevents behaviors that would have the application modify its user interface. And this dynamism is going to be necessary in an environment where new services require new application interfaces that can be downloaded as data.

An Internet Application Framework?

Mozilla made a tough decision a few years ago–to scrap the Netscape 4.x architecture in favor of one built from the ground up. In the process, this open source team created an application environment based on reusable and interchangeable components.

With this application environment in place, the team then proceeded to build a sophisticated browser. They threw in Internet Chat, a Web page composer, and other complex things, all of which were released recently as Netscape 6.0. Often forgotten is that a powerful application environment came with it. This environment is now usable by developers of other Internet applications.

What types of applications? Well, ActiveState, the company that provides popular implementations of Perl and Python for various operating systems, used Mozilla to create itsKomodo product, a visual IDE for working with Python and Perl code. The user interface provides, among other things, colored syntax, syntax checking, and source-level debugging.

So, we have a browser and an application that can be used to create and test Perl and Python applications, all built from the same application architecture.

This is exciting stuff! Much has been written about reusable code and component-based design, and now we have an open source application environment we can all use to build our own applications.

Even more exciting is the extensible user-interface language from Mozilla called XUL (pronounced “zool”). It’s based on XML, which means you can use XML to create a user interface. Combine this with the ability to make remote procedure calls, and you have a perfect place from which to commence building a bunch of P2P applications, based on the scenario mentioned above.

Now, instead of opening a browser, you can open an application built on the same framework as your browser, but with a sophisticated interface of dropdown menus and tabbed pages–all created using XML. You can access remote procedure calls at the touch of a button and when you’re ready to access a new service, click another button, and in a couple of minutes restart your application. New entries will be added to new or existing menus providing access to the new service. All this is accomplished without Java bytecode, a new plug-in, or a DLL.

You’ve just downloaded XML.

When you explore the possibilities of the XPToolkit from Mozilla maybe you’ll agree that Netscape 6.0 is more than just a standards-based, better-than-Navigator-4.x-browser. It’s the start of a new new way of doing things on the Internet.